Below, please find additional background information from the NBT Platform. If you have any questions regarding these documents, please contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Study: Regulatory status of NBTs in countries outside the EU
This study explores the regulatory and legislative status of new breeding techniques in 13 countries outside the EU. The study was conducted by Schuttelaar & Partners in 2013, and was updated during the period
Fact sheet on NBTs in general
Several fact sheets were drafted by the NBT Platform, for the most part in
2013, in order to provide stakeholders with a summarised overview of the different techniques, their application and regulatory aspects. As part of
the revision and update of these documents, a new version of the fact sheet
on NBTs in general was developed first .
The plant breeding sector provides innovation in crops for the food supply chain. However, producing new plant varieties by cross breeding is a lengthy process. This has an important impact not only on the plant-breeding sector, but also on the food supply chain as a whole. This factsheet highlights the socio-economic impact of NBTs on the whole food supply chain.
Fact sheet on The impact of the EU Commissions’ legal interpretation of
Without R&D investment in plant breeding technologies, many of the foods we consume today would not even exist or they would at least not be that healthy or tasty. This factsheet outlines how the development of plant-breeding started centuries ago and New Breeding Techniques (NBTs) are the next step in this continuum. Today, the European plant breeding sector is threatened by the lack of regulatory clarity within the meaning of Directive 2001/18/EC.
Fact sheet on legal argumentation
The fact sheet on legal argumentation gives an overview of the legal analysis that was performed by the NBT Platform, supported by external legal council, in 2013. The analysis looks at the definition of a GMO in Directive 2001/18/EC and whether the EU GMO legislation applies to the products resulting from
new breeding techniques. This technical legal document, called the Legal Briefing Paper, can be found here.
Study: Legal briefing paper (LBP)
The LBP explains the scope and purpose of Directive 2001/18/EC, which provides a definition of ‘GMO’ (Genetically Modified Organism) and ‘non-GMO’. The analysis of the European Directive reveals that, contrary to what is often believed, a GMO is defined by a combination of the process (techniques of genetic modification) used to generate the plants and the characteristics of the resulting product (the plant itself).
The European Academies' Science Advisory Council is formed by the national science academies of the EU Member States to provide independent scientific advice to European policy-makers. In June 2015, the EASAC published an official Statement that highlights the benefits associated with the use of NBTs as they enable precise, targeted, reliable changes in the genome and have significant potential for the sustainable intensification of agriculture and food security.
The European Plant Science Organisation (EPSO) is an independent academic organisation that represents more than 226 research institutes, departments and universities from 30 countries in Europe and beyond. EPSO's mission is to improve the impact and visibility of plant science in Europe. In February 2015, the EPSO published a Statement that points out how crop genetic improvement technologies are crucial for a sustainable and productive agriculture.
The Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) is a UK research Council and is the largest UK public funder of non-medical bioscience. It predominantly funds scientific research institutes and university research departments in the UK. In October 2014, the BBSRC has published a Statement that sets out the current landscape of novel genetic techniques, recognising that the techniques are already widely used in research and that the regulatory processes for new crops will need to be able to accommodate them.
Fact sheets on the different techniques
Several fact sheets were drafted by the NBT Platform, for the most part in 2013, in order to provide stakeholders with a summarised overview of the different techniques, their application and regulatory aspects. The fact sheets are currently being revised and updated, but the original versions can be found below:
- Fact sheet Site-Directed Nucleases
- Fact sheet Oligo-Directed Mutagenesis
- Fact sheet Agro-infiltration
- Fact sheet Cisgenesis
- Fact sheet Grafting on GM rootstock
- Fact sheet Reverse Breeding
- Fact sheet RNA-directed DNA Methylation